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Cavendish

The Experimental Life (Second revised edition 2016)
Biography of the eighteenth-century English natural philosopher and chemist Henry Cavendish

Biography of the eighteenth-century English natural philosopher and chemist Henry Cavendish

This publication is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Germany (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE) Licence.

Information

ISBN

978-3-945561-06-5

Pages

596

Publication Date

Sept. 27, 2016

Print on Demand

pro-business.com

Price

31,90 €

Submitted by

Jed Z. Buchwald

Copyedited by

Lindy Divarci, Georg Pflanz, Caroline Frank, Ross Fletcher, Melina Vanni-Gonzalez

Two gifted eighteenth-century Londoners, Charles Cavendish and his painfully preeminent son Henry were descendants of paired revolutions, one political and one scientific. Scions of a powerful revolutionary family, they gave an original turn to the duty of public service that attached to their social rank. The English aristocracy knew one of its finest hours when Henry Cavendish gently laid his delicate weights in the scales of the first great precision balance of the century. For this action to happen, it took two generations and two kinds of invention, one in social forms and the other in scientific methods. This joint biography of father and son tells how it came to pass. Henry Cavendish is best known for his researches in chemistry, electricity, and heat, but in truth he worked in every part of physical science, bringing to it his unique combination of experimental precision and mathematical penetration. His accomplishment is likened to the highest example: since the death of Newton, Humphry Davy wrote, England has suffered "no scientific loss so great as that of Cavendish." Through inheritance he became immensely rich. Regarding intellect and fortune, he is called "the wisest of the rich and the richest of the wise." In his exclusive devotion to science, he is compared with "the most austere anchorites," who were "not more faithful to their vows." With reference to his legendary shyness, he is described as a man of "most reserved disposition," of a "degree bordering on disease." He was, to be sure, all of these things: one of the best scientists of his time, one of the richest men in the kingdom, a member of one of the politically most influential aristocratic families, a scientific fanatic, and a person of extraordinary peculiarities. This biography, a major revision of the original published in 1999, offers an enlarged understanding of the eighteenth century world of science and a reevaluation both of the scientific genius and of the remarkable personality of Henry Cavendish. It is a comprehensive study of science, family, and society in the eighteenth century.
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A

applications of science and inventions

Royal Society
Society of Arts
industry

aristocracy

ascendancy
conditions of life
duty of service
industry
landed power
politics
science

astronomy

and classics

B

British Museum, (Figs. 5.3–5.4, 99–100)

Royal Society
founding
standing committee
trustees

C

Cambridge University

Cavendish Physical Laboratory
Newton’s influence
Peterhouse, (Fig. 6.2, 126)
Revolution of 1688–89
Scientific Revolution
examinations
fellows, tutors, lecturers
mathematics and physical science
professors of mathematics and science
scientists
students

Cavendish Society

chemistry

accuracy
acids
affinities
affinity tables
analytical
anti-phlogistic chemistry, Chemical Revolution
arsenic
as a science
as part of natural philosophy
atomic theory
attraction, repulsion of particles
calcination
caloric
calorimetry
combustion
common air
definite and multiple proportions
dephlogisticated air
elements
equivalent weights and standards
eudiometer
experimental techniques
factitious air
fixed air
gaseous state
heat in chemical changes
inflammable air
instruments, (Figs. 8.1–8.2, 172)
laboratory
matter, quantity of
mineral water
neutral salts
nitrous acid
nitrous air
nomenclature
phlogisticated air
phlogistication
phlogiston
physical approach to chemistry
pneumatic chemistry
practice
principles
tartar
theory
water as a compound
water controversy
water generation
water synthesis
weighing and measuring

E

Earth

Anglo-French triangulation
atmosphere, composition of
auroras
climates, mean heat by wells and springs
earthquakes
geological journeys
heights of mountains
industrial uses of
magnetism
mean density of
minerals and ores
motion
navigation and sea voyages
shape
strata
weather

electricity

Leiden jars
analogy with chemistry
analogy with light
analogy with mechanics
analogy with sound propagation
animal electricity
capacities
compression of electric fluid, degree of electrification
electric fluid
electrical machine and battery
electrometers
errors and accuracy
heat generated
imponderable fluid
law of electric force
lightning
most active field
nature, principles, and laws of
quantity of electric fluid
resistances, conductivities
sparking chemical mixtures
standards
truth of the theory

experiments and observations

chemistry
collaboration
electricity
errors of observers, instruments, and theories
heat
independent observations
instruments
meaning of “experiment”
quantitative
reciprocal and constant proportions
reliability, accuracy, precision, exactness
repeatability of experiments
senses
standards, measures, equivalences

F

Foundling Hospital, (Fig. 5.2, 99)

H

Hackney Academy

heat

as a material fluid
as energy
as motion
boiling, theory of
change of state
chemical reactions
conservation of energy
electricity
equilibrium of mixtures of unequally heated bodies
expansion
experiments on
extreme natural and artificial cold
friction and hammering
importance of
latent and specific
light
mechanical equivalent of
mechanical theory of
mercury, freezing of
quantitative science
radiant
rates of heating and cooling
thermometers and related apparatus
weight of

I

imponderable fluids

Institute of France

instruments and apparatus

air pump
astronomical
chemical balance
clocks
coinage apparatus
dividing instruments
electrical instruments and apparatus
eudiometer
examining and comparing
factitious air
heat
instrument makers
laboratory, various
magnetic
marine chronometers
mathematical
means of discovery
meteorological and magnetic instruments
musical
pneumatic chemistry
rods
sense organs
sensitivity, accuracy, precision
telescopes
theodolite
thermometers
torsion balance
uniform method

L

life sciences

London

Henry Cavendish’s familiar destinations, (Figs. 11.15–11.16)
attraction to Charles and Henry Cavendish

M

mathematics

algebra
fluxions
of the English natural philosopher
probability
reasoning tool

N

natural philosophy as a way of life

natural philosophy, natural philosopher

P

politics

Revolution of 1688–89 and aftermath
Royal Society
national

R

Royal Institution

Royal Society
founding
object of
subscribers, managers, and committees

Royal Society Club

guests

Royal Society of London, (Fig. 5.1, 98)

Anglo-French triangulation
British Museum
Copley Medal
Crane Court
Hudson’s Bay
London
Newton’s presence and influence
Philosophical Transactions
Society of Antiquaries
Society of Arts
Somerset House, (Fig. 10.4, 254)
Westminster Bridge
aristocrats
attraction of mountains, (Figs. 10.2–10.3, 249, 438)
committee of papers
committees
councils
criticism and defense of Newton
dissensions
exactness rewarded
guests
in the 1720s
lightning protection
masters of the Mint
officers
plain language
practical science
quality of
recommendations, elections, membership
reports of violent events
science around 1727
science around 1750
standards
transits of Venus, (Fig. 10.1, 246)
voyages of discovery
weather recording

S

scientific clubs

Scientific Revolution

Society for the Improvement of Animal Chemistry

Society of Antiquaries

Royal Society model
duty of
journal

Society of Arts

Royal Society
journal

Society of Free British Fisheries

T

theory

Newton’s authority
Philosophical Transactions
analogies
astronomy
chemistry
criteria of a good theory
electricity
ether
geology
heat
hypotheses
imponderable fluids
light
mechanics
music
reasonableness of
understanding nature

W

Westminster Bridge, (Figs. 5.5–5.6, 100–101)

Show All

A

Adams, George

Adams, Henry

on biography

Aepinus, F.U.T.

electrical theory and experiments
frozen mercury

Akenside, Mark

Royal Society Club

Alexander, William

Anguish, Thomas

dissensions at the Royal Society

Anne, Queen

Appia, Cyprian

Arago, D.F.J.

Arbuthnot, John

Arderon, William

Ashburnham, George, third earl of

Ashburnham, John, second earl of

Aubert, Alexander, (Fig. 12.3, 311)

Cavendish’s trustee
Monday Club
Royal Society
accuracy and error
astronomical observatory
astronomy
balloons
dissensions at the Royal Society
meteorological instruments
serving science
telescopes
view of Cavendish

Avogadro, Amedeo

Aykroyd, W.R.

view of Henry Cavendish

B

Babbage, Charles

mechanical calculating machine

Bach, J.C.

Bach, J.S.

Bacon, Sir Francis

Baily, Francis

Baker, George

club meeting on the Strand

Baker, Henry

Society of Arts

Baldwin, Christopher

Bamfield, Samuel

Banks, Sir Joseph, (Fig. 13.1, 316)

Anglo-French triangulation
British Museum
Cavendish’s papers
Charles Blagden, relations with
Gregory mine
Institute of France
Philosophical Transactions
Royal Institution
Society of Antiquaries
coinage
conversaziones
excise duty
library
national politics
opinion of Henry Cavendish
political dissensions at the Royal Society
president of the Royal Society
promoting science

Barker, Robert

recommended for F.R.S. by Henry Cavendish

Barrington, Daines

Society of Antiquaries

Barrow, John

view of Henry Cavendish

Baumé, Antoine

approach to chemistry
gravitation as chemical force

Bayley, William

observations in the far North
transit of Venus in 1769

Becher, Johann Joachim

phlogiston

Beddoes, Thomas

Bennett, Abraham

Bentinck, Margaret Cavendish, duchess of Portland

Bentley, Richard

Cambridge

Bergman, Torbern

affinity table
electricity
gravitation as chemical force
mineral water

Bernhard, Thomas

Berry, A.J.

biography of Henry Cavendish
view of Henry Cavendish

Berthollet, Claude Louis

new chemistry
phlogiston
recommended for F.R.S. by Henry Cavendish

Berzelius, J.J.

Bevis, John

Bickley, Francis

view of Henry Cavendish

Biot, J.B.

encyclopedia article on Henry Cavendish
opinion of Henry Cavendish

Birch, Thomas, (Fig. 4.6, 75)

British Museum
Rawthmell’s Coffee-House
Royal Society
Royal Society Club
Society of Antiquaries
Wrest Park
friendship with Lord Charles Cavendish
guest at Lord Charles Cavendish’s
patronized by the first and second earls of Hardwicke
recommended Henry Cavendish for F.R.S.
scientific activities

Bird, John

dividing instruments

Black, Joseph, (Fig. 14.5, 351)

affinity table
approach to chemistry
balloons
chemical attraction
comparison with Cavendish
fixed air
freezing point of mercury
heat theory
heat, importance of
heat, quantitative study of
latent and specific heats
lectures
phlogiston
pneumatic chemistry as a field

Blagden, Sir Charles, (Fig. 12.1, 310)

Anglo-French triangulation
Bedford Square house
Cavendish’s death
Cavendish’s library
Cavendish’s papers
Cavendish’s seclusion from early life
Cavendish’s trustee
Chemical Revolution
Continental tour
Copley Medal
Institute of France
Monday Club
Royal Institution
Royal Society
Royal Society dissensions
Royal Society secretary
annuity
assisted by Cavendish in his scientific work
association with Henry Cavendish
balloons
break with Cavendish
chemical nomenclature
copiousness and precision
dependence on and conflict with Joseph Banks
encouraged by Cavendish to practice medicine
excise duty on alcoholic beverages
foreign science and scientists, knowledge of
formal manner
freezing point of mercury
friendship with Georgiana, duchess of Devonshire
heat
instruments
journeys with Cavendish
languages
legacy from Henry Cavendish
move from medical career to science
moving Henry Cavendish’s house
national politics
not a man of genius
opinion of Henry Cavendish
phlogistic versus anti-phlogistic chemistry
physician
routine
scientific researches
student and friend of William Cullen’s
traveler
water controversy

Blake, Francis

Blanchard, Jean Pierre

Blanchard, Wilkinson

Henry Cavendish’s guest at the Royal Society Club

Bligh, William

recommended for F.R.S. by Henry Cavendish

Bliss, Nathaniel

Blunt, Thomas

Boerhaave, Herman

chemical affinities
consulted by Lord Charles and Lady Anne Cavendish
doctrine of elementary fire
physical approach to chemistry
textbooks

Bonaparte, Napoleon

opinion of Henry Cavendish

Boscovich, Roger Joseph

particles and forces, view of matter
transit of Venus in 1769

Boswell, James

Bouguer, Pierre

heights of mountains

Boulton, Matthew

Boyle, Charles, earl of Orrery (son of Anne Cavendish, sister of the first duke of Devonshire)

orrery

Boyle, Charlotte

Boyle, Richard, earl of Burlington

Boyle, Robert

Boyle’s law
aristocrat in science
experiments on air
physical approach to chemistry
pneumatic chemistry, a field
related to the Cavendishes

Boys, C.V.

Bradley, James, (Fig. 5.7, 111)

Royal Society
aberration of light
astronomer royal
collaboration with Lord Macclesfield
examination of instruments
proposed Henry Cavendish for F.R.S.
supported by Lord Charles Cavendish for astronomer royal
value of instruments

Brande, William Thomas

Society for the Improvement of Animal Chemistry

Braun, J.A.

frozen mercury

Brice, Alexander

Brodie, Sir Benjamin Collins

Society for the Improvement of Animal Chemistry

Brookes, Joshua

Brougham, Henry Peter, Baron

scientific biographies
view of Henry Cavendish

Brown, Henton

Brown, Robert

Cavendish as an honorable man

Brownrigg, William

firedamp
mineral water
pneumatic chemistry as a field
salt-making

Buffon, G.-L.L., comte de

Burke, Edmund

Burney, Charles

Burrow, Reuben

Burrow, Sir James

Royal Society
Royal Society Club
Society of Antiquaries

Bussiere, Paul

Byrom, John

C

Camden, Charles

Campbell, John, Lord Glenorchy

pupil of Thomas Wright’s

Canton, John

Aepinus
Henry Cavendish
Royal Society
compressibility of water, and Copley Medal
electrical researches
magnetism

Carlisle, Isabella

Carlyle, Alexander

Cassini de Thury, C.-F.

Cavallo, Tiberius

eudiometer
evaporation
heat and light
heat as a material fluid
pneumatic chemistry as a field

Cavendish, Lady Anne (de Grey) (daughter of the duke of Kent), (Fig. 4.2, 65)

birth of first child, Henry
death
examined by Herman Boerhaave
illness
marriage to Lord Charles Cavendish
second child, Frederick

Cavendish, Lady Anne (daughter of the second duke of Devonshire)

Cavendish, Lady Caroline (daughter of the third duke of Devonshire)

Cavendish, Charles

scientific interests

Cavendish, Lord Charles (son of the second duke of Devonshire), (Fig. 4.1, 64)

Académie de Calvin, Geneva
Académie d’exercises, Lunéville
British Museum
Copley Medal
Eton
Foundling Hospital
Gentlemen of the Bedchamber to Frederick, Prince of Wales
Great Marlborough Street house, (Figs. 4.4–4.5)
Greenwich Royal Observatory visitations
Grosvenor Square house
Harrison’s marine chronometers
Holker Hall
House of Commons
Lowther executorships, inheritances, and lawsuit
Mitre Tavern
Putteridge manor
Rawthmell’s Coffee-House
Robert Walpole
Royal Society
Royal Society Club
Royal Society library inspector
Royal Society’s standard weights and measures
Society of Arts
Society of Free British Fisheries
Westminster Bridge
aristocrat in science
astronomical observations made with his son Henry
astronomical observations with Bradley
auditor of the Royal Society treasurer’s accounts
birth
bringing Henry as guest to the Royal Society
calculations of errors of time for Ludlam
club meeting on the Strand
clubs
committee of papers
council member and vice president of the Royal Society
country properties in Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire
dedication to the Royal Society
draining of the fens
duty of service
early homes
electrical conduction across the River Thames
electrical conduction through a vacuum
electrical conductivity of heated glass
experiments on water, vapor, steam, mercury, heat, and capillarity
family relationships
grand tour
health and death
host of dinners
income
inheritance from his first cousin Elizabeth
introducing Henry to his social circle
library
maintenance of his son Frederick
marriage to Lady Anne de Grey
mathematical student of Abraham De Moivre’s
meteorological observations
overseeing Henry’s education
papers
proposed by William Jones for F.R.S.
public service
recommendations of candidates for F.R.S.
repetition of John Canton’s experiments on the compressibility of water
residence in Nice
shipwreck
social circle
supporting Henry’s scientific direction
thermometers, (Fig. 5.8, 117)
transit of Venus in 1761
turnpikes
urged to become president of the Royal Society
vestry of St. James, Westminster
visits to the Grey family
wealth
will

Cavendish, Charles (grandson of the fourth duke of Devonshire)

legacy from Henry Cavendish

Cavendish, Lady Diana (daughter of the second duke of Devonshire)

Cavendish, Lady Elizabeth (daughter of the first duke of Devonshire)

Cavendish, Lady Elizabeth (daughter of the second duke of Devonshire)

insanity

Cavendish, Elizabeth (granddaughter of the first duke of Devonshire, daughter of Lord James)

legacy to Lord Charles Cavendish
marriage to Richard Chandler (who changed his name to Cavendish)

Cavendish, Frederick (second son of Lord Charles and Lady Anne Cavendish)

Hackney Academy
Peterhouse, Cambridge
accident
birth
character
heirs
inheritance of landed property from his brother, Henry
mental incompetence
relations with Henry Cavendish

Cavendish, Frederick (son of the third duke of Devonshire)

Holker Hall

Cavendish, Lord George Augustus (son of the third duke of Devonshire)

Holker Hall

Cavendish, Lord George Augustus Henry (son of the fourth duke of Devonshire)

Cavendish’s executor and principal heir
Cavendish’s instruments
Cavendish’s library
Cavendish’s scientific papers
Hackney Academy
Holker Hall
Society of Arts

Cavendish, Henry (first son of Lord Charles and Lady Anne Cavendish), (Fig. 4.3, 66)

Aepinus’s theory of electricity
Anglo-French triangulation
Bedford Square, (Figs. 11.5–11.6, 269–270)
Boscovich and Michell, theory of matter
Bristol sewage
British Museum
Cambridge lectures and textbooks on mathematics and natural philosophy
Cat & Bagpipes
Cavendish experiment
Charles Blagden, association with
Chemical Revolution
Chemische Annalen
Clapham Common house and setting, (Figs. 11.8–11.14, 282–286)
Clapham Common land developer
Copley Medal
Crown & Anchor
Earth-magnetic instruments, (Figs. 8.6–8.7)
Georgiana, duchess of Devonshire
Giardini Academy
Great Marlborough Street: house, apartment, laboratory, and garden at
Hackney Academy, (Fig. 6.1, 124)
Hampstead, (Figs. 11.1–11.4, 263–266)
Henrietta Street meeting place
Hindu calendar
Holker Hall
Hudson’s Bay experiments
Industrial Revolution
Institute of France
Joseph Banks
King’s Head
Kirwan’s criticism answered
Lavoisier’s anti-phlogistic chemistry and phlogistic chemistry, compared
Leiden-jar battery, (Fig. 9.5, 216)
Mitre Coffee House
Monday Club at the George & Vulture, (Fig. 12.7, 313)
Newtonian
Newtonian indoctrination at Cambridge
Newton’s Principia as model for electricity
Newton’s authority on theory
Newton’s natural philosophy, master of all parts of
Ohm’s law
Peterhouse, Cambridge
Rawthmell’s Coffee-House
Royal Institution
Royal Society Club
Royal Society Councils
Royal Society Papers Committee
Royal Society auditor
Royal Society committees
Royal Society dissensions
Society for the Improvement of Animal Chemistry
Society of Antiquaries
Society of Arts
acids, specific gravities and freezing points of
action at a distance
affinity
affinity table, (Fig. 14.12)
air experiments
air from distilled substances
air from fermented and putrefied substances
alum works
analogies
animal and plant substances
annuity
apparatus for adjusting the boiling point, (Fig. 8.5)
apparatus in the laboratory, (Figs. 15.3–15.6)
appearance
argon
aristocrat in science
arsenic
astronomical observatory
astronomy
atmosphere, composition of
atmosphere, researches on
attended social dinners with his father
attraction of mountains, (Fig. 10.2, 249)
auroras
autism
average climates, temperature of wells and springs
balloons
biographies of
biography, difficulty of
birth in Nice
boiling, theory of
candor
caution
change of state
charges of coated plates/Leiden jars, (Figs. 9.11–9.12, 225–226)
charity
chemical balance, (Fig. 14.15, 375)
chemical laboratory
chemical nomenclature
chemical techniques
chemical theory
chemistry, approach to
chronology
clocks
club meeting on the Strand
clubs
coinage, (Fig. 17.9, 476)
coldness toward others
combination of mathematical-theoretical and experimental skills
comets and comet paths
commercial revolution
comparison with Black
comparison with Laplace
comparison with Lavoisier
comparison with Priestley in chemistry
comprehensive researches
confidence
conservation of energy
conservative
contribution to pneumatic chemistry
copper smelting
correspondent
country properties in Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire
criticism and reformulation of Lavoisier’s anti-phlogistic chemistry
criticism of Lavoisier’s acidifying principle
death
dedication to the Royal Society
dephlogisticated air
disorder
dispersion and refraction of light, experiments on, (Fig.  17.3, 462)
dividing astronomical instruments, (Fig. 17.4, 467)
duty of service, public service
eccentricity
elected F.R.S.
electrical capacities, (Figs. 9.9–9.11, 222, 225)
electrical conduction and conductivities
electrical force, law of, (Figs. 9.7–9.8, 219–220)
electrical laboratory
electrical machine, (Fig. 9.4)
electrical potential, the modern concept and Cavendish’s
electrical theory
electrometers, (Fig. 9.6, 216)
electromotive force
embarrassment
encyclopedic knowledge of physical science
energy, personal
equivalent weights
equivalents and standards in coinage
equivalents in heat and electricity
errors of instruments, observers, and theory, limits of accuracy, precision, exactitude
eudiometer, (Figs. 14.1–14.2, 334–335)
excise duty on alcohol
extraordinary singularities
extreme natural and artificial cold
factitious air, (Fig. 8.3, 181)
family trees
first published research, in Heberden’s paper
fixed air
forces, attractions and repulsions, (Fig. 15.2, 401)
funeral
geological and industrial chemical experiments
geology
guest of his father’s at the Royal Society
guests of his at the Royal Society
health
heat as material fluid
heat as motion of particles
heat of chemical reactions
heat theory, why he did not publish it
heat, experiments on
heat, mechanical theory of
heat, weight of
heat, why he did not publish his experiments
heat, why he made a theory
heights of mountains by the barometer, (Figs. 16.1–16.2, 423–424)
heirs
his brain “but a calculating engine,” Wilson’s characterization
honourable title
hygrometers
hypotheses
hypothesis and theory of electricity
hypothesis and theory of heat
imponderable fluids
importance of his father to his direction in life
inflammable air
instrument collection
instruments: examination, comparison, and use of
integrity
intemperate pursuit of science
iron smelting
journeys, industrial and geological
laboratory assistants
learning science from the Philosophical Transactions
leaving home
library
life of natural philosophy
light and heat
light, gravitation of
light, theory of
lightning protection at powder works and magazines
magnetic dip
magnetic variation
manufactures
marine acid
mathematical instruments and drawings, (Figs. 9.1–9.3)
mathematical mind
mathematics
mechanical equivalent of heat
mercury, freezing temperature
meteorological instruments of the Royal Society
meteorological observatory
meteorology
mine descents
mineral water
misogyny
music
national politics
natural history
natural philosopher, natural philosophy
nautical astronomy
nervous manner
nitrous acid, (Fig. 14.4, 343)
nitrous air
not inventive of new problems
objectivity
observatory
openness
particles and forces, view of matter, (Fig. 9.13, 227)
patience
phlogisticated air
phlogiston
phlogiston, renounced
physical approach to chemistry
plumbago
pneumatic chemistry contributions
poem on Frederick, Prince of Wales
portrait of
principle of partial pressures
principles
productive research, years of
qualitative aspect of his researches
quantitative aspect of his researches
radiant heat
reason
reception of his electrical theory
recognition of central problems of natural philosophy
recommendations of F.R.S.
recommendations of leading anti-phlogistic chemists for F.R.S.
relations to society through science
religion
reluctance to publish
reserve
rivalry with Black avoided
routine
science as an exclusive interest
scientific manuscripts
self-registering thermometer, (Fig. 8.4)
shyness
simplicity
solitary
solution of metals in acids, theory of
specific and latent heats
specific and latent heats, theory of
specific inductive capacities
speech peculiarities
standard of excellence
standard volume measures for air, (Fig. 14.3)
standards
steam engines, (Figs. 16.4–16.5, 426–427)
stones, experiments on
strata
strength of will
strict reasoning in science
taciturnity
tartar
telescopes
theorist
theory in natural philosophy
theory of motion
thermometers
time
timidity
torpedo, artificial electrical fish, (Fig. 9.14, 232)
torsion balance, (Fig. 16.8, 437)
trained in science by his father
transit of Venus in 1761
transit of Venus in 1769
truth seeking
understanding
universal constants
vis viva
visits to the Grey family
voyages of discovery
water
water controversy
way of making a theory
wealth, (Fig. 17.11, 483)
weighing the world
will
wind measurer

Cavendish, Henry (grandson of the fourth duke of Devonshire)

legacy from Henry Cavendish

Cavendish, Sir Henry

Cavendish, Lord James (son of the first duke of Devonshire)

House of Commons
Rawthmell’s Coffee-House
scientific interests

Cavendish, Lord James (son of the second duke of Devonshire)

Académie d’exercises, Nancy and Lunéville
Eton
House of Commons
grand tour
military

Cavendish, Lord John (son of the third duke of Devonshire)

Hackney Academy
Peterhouse, Cambridge

Cavendish, Margaret, duchess of Newcastle

scientific interests

Cavendish, Lady Mary (daughter of the second duke of Devonshire)

Cavendish, Lady Rachel (daughter of the second duke of Devonshire)

Cavendish, Lady Rachel (daughter of the third duke of Devonshire)

Cavendish, Lord Richard (son of the fourth duke of Devonshire)

Hackney Academy
scientific interest

Cavendish, William, duke of Newcastle

scientific interest

Cavendish, William (son of Lord James Cavendish)

Cavendish, William (grandson of the fourth duke of Devonshire)

legacy from Henry Cavendish

Cay, Henry Boult

Cambridge
Henry Cavendish’s guest at the Royal Society Club

Chambers, Ephraim

Chambers, William

Chandler, Barbara

Chandler, Richard (later Richard Cavendish)

Clairaut, Alexis Claude

Clarke, Henry

Cleghorn, William

heat theory
heat, importance of

Cole, William

Colebrooke, Josiah

Royal Society Club
recommended Henry Cavendish to the Society of Antiquaries

Colmar, Thomas de

mechanical calculating machine

Colson, John

Cambridge
Rawthmell’s Coffee-House
pupil of De Moivre’s

Conduitt, John

Cook, James

recommended for F.R.S. by Henry Cavendish
voyage instructions from Cavendish

Coram, Thomas

Cotes, Roger

Cambridge
pneumatic chemistry
theory of errors
tutor to the duke of Kent’s sons

Coulomb, Charles Augustin

Cramer, Gabriel

Crawford, Adair

difficulty of making repeatable experiments in heat

Crell, Lorenz

chemical journal
water controversy

Cullen, Charles

assistant to Henry Cavendish

Cullen, William

affinity table
approach to chemistry
chemical attraction
chemical teaching
latent heat
library

Curzon, Nathaniel

Cuthbert, John

Cuthbertson, John

coinage experiments

Cuvier, Georges

obituary of Cavendish

D

Dalby, Isaac

Dalrymple, Alexander, (Fig. 12.2, 311)

Cavendish’s trustee
Monday Club
Society of Antiquaries
dissensions at the Royal Society
exactness and error
instruments
legacy from Henry Cavendish
library

Dalton, John

Royal Institution
atomic theory

Darby, Abraham III

Davall, Peter

Royal Society
Royal Society Club
pupil of De Moivre’s

Davies, Richard

specific gravities

Davis, Samuel

Hindu astronomy
recommended for F.R.S. by Henry Cavendish

Davy, Sir Humphry, (Fig. 17.7, 474)

Cavendish’s instruments and apparatus
Royal Institution
Society for the Improvement of Animal Chemistry
consultation with Cavendish
heat
phlogiston
view of Henry Cavendish

Davy, John

Delambre, Jean-Baptiste Joseph

recommended for F.R.S. by Henry Cavendish

Delaval, Edward

Cambridge
aristocrat in science
chemistry
electricity

Deluc, Jean André

geological theory
height of mountains by the barometer
latent heat
meteorological instruments
perfection of instruments
theory of boiling
touring
water controversy

Derham, William

Desaguliers, John Theophilus

Westminster Bridge
experiments at the Royal Society

Devonshire, Georgiana (Spencer) duchess of Devonshire (wife of the fifth duke), (Fig. 17.1, 452

friendship with Henry Cavendish

Devonshire, Rachel (Russell), duchess of Devonshire (wife of the second duke), (Fig. 1.9, 33)

Devonshire, William Cavendish, third earl of

scientific interest

Devonshire, William Cavendish, first duke of

De Moivre
Revolution of 1688–89
dukedom

Devonshire, William Cavendish, second duke of, (Fig. 1.8, 33)

grand tour
lodestone
parliamentary career
personality
political principles
public service

Devonshire, William Cavendish, third duke of

Foundling Hospital
Oxford
Robert Walpole
Royal Society
interest in art and science
personality
political career
relations with Lord Charles Cavendish

Devonshire, William Cavendish, fourth duke of

character
political career
united Boyle and Cavendish families

Devonshire, William Cavendish, fifth duke of

character
disapproval of Henry Cavendish
omitted from Henry Cavendish’s will

Devonshire, William Cavendish, seventh duke of

Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge
Henry Cavendish’s scientific papers

Devonshire, William Spencer George Cavendish, sixth duke of

Henry Cavendish’s library

Disney, William

Dixon, Jeremiah

degree of latitude
transit of Venus in 1761

Dodson, James

pupil of De Moivre’s

Dolland, John

Newton’s dispersion law, experiments on
achromatic telescope

Dolland, Peter

Dollfuss, Johann Caspar

Douglas, James, fourteenth earl of Morton

Royal Society
Society of Arts
aristocrat, in science
opinion of Lord Charles Cavendish’s scientific skill
president of the Royal Society

Drake, Francis

Dunn, Thomas

Dunning, John

Dunthorne, Richard

Dupré, Josias

recommended for F.R.S. by Henry Cavendish

Dymond, Joseph

meteorology
transit of Venus in 1769

E

Edgerton, Francis Henry, eighth earl of Bridgewater

Edgerton, John William, seventh earl of Bridgewater

Eeles, Henry

Ellicott, John

Ellis, Henry

Emerson, William

Empson, James

Enfield, William

work of the natural philosopher

Euler, Leonhard

F

Fahrenheit, Daniel Gabriel

heat capacity
super-cooled water

Faraday, Michael

Fitzgerald, Keane

frozen mercury

Flamsteed, John

Fletcher, John

Foley, Thomas

Folkes, Martin

Royal Society
Royal Society Club
Society of Antiquaries

Fontana, Felice

eudiometer

Fontana, Gregorio

recommended for F.R.S. by Henry Cavendish

Fordyce, George

heat and light
nature of heat
phlogiston
weight of heat

Fox, Charles James

Franklin, Benjamin

Aepinus
Monday Club
Royal Society
Society of Antiquaries
Society of Arts
attraction of mountains
cooling by evaporation
electrical researches
lightning committee
opinion of Lord Charles Cavendish as experimenter

Frederick, prince of Wales

Cambridge
Lord Charles Cavendish
Royal Society
person and politics
sponsor of Frederick Cavendish

Freind, John

G

Gale, Roger

Galvani, Luigi

Garnett, Thomas

Gauss, Carl Friedrich

recommended for F.R.S. by Henry Cavendish

Gay-Lussac, Joseph Louis

Gellert, Christlieb Ehregott

affinity table, (Fig. 14.13, 370)

Geoffroy, Etienne-François

affinity table
rapport

George I, King

Royal Society
opinion of the second duke of Devonshire

George II, King

Royal Society
opinion of Lords Charles and James Cavendish

George III, King

constitutional crisis

Giardini, Felice

musical academy

Gibbon, Edward

Gilbert, William

Gilpin, George

excise duty on alcoholic beverages
repetition of Cavendish’s experiment on nitrous; acid
weighing the world with Cavendish

Gmelin, Johann Georg

extreme natural cold

Goombridge, Stephen

Gough, Richard

Gould, William

Graham, George

Graham, Richard

Rawthmell’s Coffee-House

’sGravesande, Willem Jacob

Cambridge textbook

Gray, Stephen

Gray, Thomas

British Museum
Cambridge

Green, George

Green, John

Grey, Lord Anthony (son of the duke of Kent)

Grey, Lord Henry de (son of the duke of Kent)

Grey, Jemima de (daughter of the duke of Kent)

Grey, Lady Mary de (daughter of the duke of Kent)

pupil of Thomas Wright’s

Grey, Lady Sophia de (daughter of the duke of Kent)

pupil of Thomas Wright’s

Guinard, Pierre Louis

Guyton de Morveau, L.B.

approach to chemistry
new chemistry and nomenclature
recommended for F.R.S. by Henry Cavendish

H

Hadley, John (instrument maker)

Hadley, John (nephew of above)

Cambridge chemical lectures
Henry Cavendish
Royal Society Club
Society of Arts
affinity table
cooling by evaporation
guest at Lord Charles Cavendish’s
mineral water
phlogiston
recommended Henry Cavendish for F.R.S.

Hale, John Blagden

Hales, Stephen

chemical attraction
earthquakes
fixed air
instruments and apparatus, inventiveness
pneumatic chemistry as a field
pneumatic trough
state of electrical research

Hall, Sir James

experimental geology

Halley, Edmond

Newton
Royal Society
astronomer royal

Hamilton, Catherine

Hamilton, Hugh

object of natural philosophy

Hamilton, Sir William

Henry Cavendish’s opinion about
music
volcanoes

Harcourt, Vernon

Cavendish and phlogiston
Henry Cavendish’s chemical manuscripts
water controversy

Hardwick, Elizabeth, Countess of Shrewsbury

Chatsworth House, (Figs. 1.6–1.7, 32)
Hardwick Hall

Harris, William Snow

Henry Cavendish’s electrical papers

Harrison, John

marine chronometers
musical experiment

Harrison, William

Henry Cavendish’s instrument maker

Hartley, David

Hatchett, Charles, (Fig. 17.5, 473)

Royal Institution
Society for the Improvement of Animal Chemistry
coinage experiments

Heberden, Thomas

Heberden, William, (Fig. 4.8, 76)

British Museum
Cambridge
Monday Club
Royal Society
Royal Society Club
Society of Antiquaries
Society of Arts
close friend of Lord Charles Cavendish’s
club meeting on the Strand
dissensions at the Royal Society
guest at Lord Charles Cavendish’s
meteorological instruments
meteorological observations with Lord Charles Cavendish
proposed Henry Cavendish for F.R.S.
published research done by Henry Cavendish
recommended Henry Cavendish to the Society of Antiquaries
scientific activities
value of scientific societies

Heberden, William (son of above)

prescribed for Henry Cavendish at his death

Helmont, J.B. van

Henly, William

electric fish
electrometer

Herschel, Caroline

comets

Herschel, William, (Fig. 12.6, 313)

Institute of France
astronomical observatory
comets
exactness and error
music
telescopes
weather

Heydinger

Henry Cavendish’s German librarian

Higgins, Bryan

heat as a material fluid

Hill, John

Himsel, Nicholas de

frozen mercury

Hindley, John

Hobbes, Thomas

tutor to Cavendishes

Holford, Peter

club meeting on the Strand

Holland, Sir Henry

view of Henry Cavendish

Homberg, Wilhelm

equivalent weights

Home, Everard

Henry Cavendish’s death
Henry Cavendish’s physician
Society for the Improvement of Animal Chemistry

Hooke, Robert

Hopkinson, Francis

Hornsby, Thomas

Horsburgh, James

recommended for F.R.S. by Henry Cavendish

Horsley, Samuel

dissensions at the Royal Society
meteorological instruments
uses of theory in science

Huck Saunders, Richard

club meeting on the Strand

Humboldt, Alexander von

Henry Cavendish’s library
eudiometer

Hume, David

revolution of 1688–89

Hunter, John

electric fish

Hunter, John, (Fig.12.4, 312)

Henry Cavendish’s physician
heat of springs and wells
legacy from Cavendish
recommended for F.R.S. by Henry Cavendish

Hutchins, Thomas

accuracy praised by Henry Cavendish
freezing point of mercury

Hutton, Charles

Royal Society dissensions
attraction of mountains
library
meteorology

Hutton, James

error
geological theory
natural philosophy as the aim of science
need for theory in science

Huygens, Christiaan

aerial telescope
music

Huygens, Constantine

I

Ingen-Housz, Jan

eudiometer

Innys, Thomas

Irvine, William

heat theory
latent heat

J

James, William

Jebb, John

Jeffries, John

Jenkinson, Charles, first Earl of Liverpool

coinage

Johnson, Samuel

Jones, William

Rawthmell’s Coffee-House
Royal Society
mathematical friend of De Moivre’s
proposed Lord Charles Cavendish for F.R.S.
secretary to Thomas Parker, first Earl of Macclesfield
tutor to Philip Yorke, first Earl of Hardwicke

Jones, William of Llanarthy

Jurin, James

Royal Society
indistinct vision
meteorology
small pox inoculation

K

Kant, Immanuel

Keene, Edmund

Keill, John

Keir, James

chemistry
recommended for F.R.S. by Henry Cavendish

Kent, Henry de Grey, duke of, (Fig. 1.1, 29)

Foundling Hospital
Kent family, (Fig. 1.3)
St. James Square
Wrest Park, (Figs. 1.4–1.5)
dukedom
grand tour
library
music
personality
public office
scientific instruments

Kent, Jemima (Crewe), duchess of, (Fig. 1.2, 30)

pupil of Thomas Wright’s

Kent, Sophia (Bentinck), second duchess of

Kent, William

King, James

recommended for F.R.S. by Henry Cavendish

Kinnersley, Ebenezer

Kirwan, Richard

Blagden’s relation with Cavendish
Cavendish’s politics
Cavendish’s rejection of phlogiston
affinities
criticism of Cavendish
fixed air
geological theory
meteorology
phlogiston
water controversy

Klaproth, Martin Heinrich

Knight, Gowin

British Museum
Royal Society Club
Society of Arts
guest at Lord Charles Cavendish’s
mariner’s compass

L

La Blancherie, Pahin de

Cavendish’s library

Labelye, Charles

Lagrange, Joseph Louis

recommended for F.R.S. by Henry Cavendish

Landriani, Marsillio

eudiometry

Lane, Timothy

Henry Cavendish
electric fish
electricity
electrometer
mineral water
recommended for F.R.S. by Henry Cavendish

Langrish, Browne

Laplace, Pierre Simon, Marquis de

calorimetry
chemistry
compared with Cavendish
heat theory
opinion of Henry Cavendish’s experiments
recommended for F.R.S. by Henry Cavendish
water controversy
weighing the world

Larmor, Sir Joseph

Cavendish as theorist

Lavoisier, Antoine Laurent, (Fig. 14.6, 352)

affinities
anti-phlogistic chemistry and the Chemical Revolution
approach to chemistry
calorimetry
chemical balance
comparison with Cavendish
recommended for F.R.S. by Henry Cavendish
theory of acids
view of heat, caloric
water controversy

Lawson, John

Lax, William

Le Roy, Jean- Baptiste

evaporation
recommended for F.R.S. by Henry Cavendish

Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm

calculus
vis viva

Leonard, Jonathan Norton

view of Henry Cavendish

Leopold, duke of Lorraine

Leslie, John

heat as a material fluid

Lewis, William (chemist)

affinity table
analysis of mineral water
approach to chemistry

Lewis, William (industrialist)

Locke, John

Long, Roger

Cambridge

Lort, Michael

Lowther, Catherine

Lowther, Sir James

Royal Society

Lowther, Sir James (son of Catherine, later earl of Lonsdale)

Lowther, John

Lowther, Sir Thomas

Holker Hall
House of Commons
marriage to Lady Elizabeth Cavendish

Lowther, Sir William (son of Sir Thomas)

Ludlam, William

Cambridge
Royal Society Club guest of both Lord Charles and Henry Cavendish
calculation of errors of time by Lord Charles Cavendish
music

Lunardi, Vincenzo

Lyons, Israel

voyage to the North

M

Macbride, David

pneumatic chemistry as a field

Machin, John

Rawthmell’s Coffee-House
Royal Society

Macie, James Lewis (James Smithson), (Fig. 17.8, 474)

Society for the Improvement of Animal Chemistry
assisted by Cavendish
recommended for F.R.S. by Henry Cavendish

Maclaurin, Colin

fluxions
vis viva

McNab, John

accuracy praised by Cavendish
freezing mixtures

Macquer, Pierre Joseph

affinities
affinity table
approach to chemistry
elements
gravitation as chemical force
heat as a material fluid
neutral arsenical salt
phlogiston

Magellan, J.H. de

Malu, Étienne Louis

Mann, Nicolas

Manners, Frances, Lady Granby

Manners, George

Manners, Lord William

Marain, Jean Jacques

Marggraf, Andreas Sigismund

chemical analysis
tartar

Marlborough, duke of

opinion of the second duke of Devonshire

Marsden, William

Martin, Benjamin

Martine, George

Marum, Martin van

acceptance of anti-phlogistic chemistry
criticism of Henry Cavendish

Mascagni, Paolo

Maseres, Francis

Cambridge
dissensions at the Royal Society
recommended for F.R.S. by Henry Cavendish

Maskelyne, Nevil, (Fig. 12.5, 312)

Cambridge
Greenwich Observatory
Institute of France
Royal Society
astronomer royal
astronomical instruments
attraction of mountains
comets
dissensions at the Royal Society
heights of mountains
library
longitude at sea, nautical method
mathematics
meteorological instruments
transit of Venus in 1761

Mason, Charles (geologist)

Cambridge

Mason, Charles (surveyor)

attraction of mountains
degree of latitude
transit of Venus in 1761

Maty, Matthew

British Museum
De Moivre
Royal Society
Society of Arts

Maty, Paul

dissensions at the Royal Society

Mauduit, Israel

Royal Society
club meeting on the Strand
guest at Lord Charles Cavendish’s

Maxwell, James Clerk

Cavendish as theorist
Henry Cavendish’s electrical papers and researches
first Cavendish Professor of Experimental Physics, Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge

Mayow, John

Mead, Richard

Foundling Hospital
Royal Society

Melvil, Thomas

Mendoza y Rio, Josef de

nautical astronomy
recommended for F.R.S. by Henry Cavendish

Michell, John

Cambridge
Henry Cavendish’s guest at the Royal Society Club
Royal Society
astronomy
distance and other measures of the fixed stars
earthquakes
friendship with Henry Cavendish
geology
gravitation of particles of light
light-mill experiment
magnetism
music
natural philosopher
particles and forces, view of matter
strata
telescope
visited by Cavendish
weighing the world

Mickleburgh, John

Cambridge

Miles, Henry

on quantity in science

Milner, Isaac

acceptance of anti-phlogistic chemistry
heat theory

Mitchell, John

Moivre, Abraham de

Cambridge
Royal Society
and Whig aristocracy
mathematics teacher
probability
relationship to Newton

Molyneux, Samuel

Montgolfier, Joseph de

Montgolfier, Étienne de

Morgan, Elizabeth

Morgan, Sir William of Tredegar

Mortimer, Cromwell

on the use of thermometers and clocks in chemistry

Morton, Charles

British Museum
Royal Society

Murdoch, Patrick

Musgrave, William

Musschenbroek, Petrus van

Cambridge textbook
Leiden jar
electric fish

N

Nairne, Edward

Henry Cavendish
Monday Club
Royal Society
air pump
hygrometer
magnetic needle

Neumann, Caspar

phlogiston

Newcome, Henry

Hackney Academy

Newcome, Peter

Hackney Academy
Royal Society
Royal Society Club

Newman, John

Newton, Sir Isaac, (Fig. 6.3, 132)

Opticks
Principia
air
appreciation of limits of accuracy
chemistry, physical approach
criticism and defense of
density of the Earth
dispersion law
displacement series
electricity
ether
forces and particles
heat of chemical activity
heat theory
hypotheses
law of gravitation
light theory
master of the Mint
mathematics
mistakes
momentum
music
president of the Royal Society
reflecting telescope
religion
scientific instruments
specific gravities

Nicholson, William

chemical nomenclature
nature of heat
phlogiston
weighing in chemistry

O

Obers, W.

recommended for F.R.S. by Henry Cavendish

Oldenburg, Henry

tutor to the first Duke of Devonshire

P

Pallas, Pyotr Simon

extreme natural cold

Parker, George, second earl of Macclesfield

British Museum
Copley Medal address on Lord Charles Cavendish
Royal Society
Society of Antiquaries
Society of Arts
aristocrat in science
astronomical observatory
committee of papers of the Royal Society
patron and astronomical collaborator of James Bradley’s
proposed Henry Cavendish for F.R.S.
proposed Henry Cavendish for membership in the Royal Society Club
pupil of De Moivre’s
pupil of William Jones’s

Pascal, Blaise

Pelham, Frances

Pellet, Thomas

Pemberton, Henry

Petit, Jean Louis

Society of Antiquaries

Phipps, C.J., Lord Mulgrave

alum works, visited by Cavendish
attraction of mountains
instructions from Cavendish
voyage to the North

Piazzi, Joseph

recommended for F.R.S. by Henry Cavendish

Pickering, Roger

Pickersgill, Richard

northern voyage with Cavendish’s instructions

Planta, Joseph

Playfair, John

Henry Cavendish’s taciturnity
attraction of mountains
endurance of Newton’s system
library
object of geology

Poisson, Simon Denis

Pond, John

dividing circle

Ponsonby, Frederick, third earl of Bessborough

legacy from Henry Cavendish

Ponsonby, George (son of Elizabeth Cavendish and John Ponsonby)

Ponsonby, John

Ponsonby, William, second earl of Bessborough

Poole, Robert

Poore, Edward

dissensions at the Royal Society

Postlethwait, Thomas

Pound, James

Poynting, John Henry

repetition of the Cavendish experiment using the common balance

Priestley, Joseph, (Fig. 14.7, 352)

Aepinus
Franklin’s electrical theory
Institute of France
Leiden jar battery
Revolution of 1688–89
Royal Society
affinities
chemical apparatus, (Fig. 14.8)
common air
comparison with Cavendish
dephlogisticated air
electrical experiments
eudiometer
importance of Cavendish’s work on phlogisticated air
importance of electricity
inflammable air
instruments and apparatus, inventiveness
inverse-square law of electrical force
mephitic air
music
national character
nitrous air
optics
phlogiston
pneumatic chemistry
water controversy

Pringle, Sir John

British Museum
Monday Club
Society of Arts
club meeting on the Strand
electric fish
lightning conductors
pneumatic chemistry as a field
president of the Royal Society

Proust, Joseph Louis

R

Ramsay, William

assessment of Cavendish’s experiments on air
inert gases

Ramsden, Jesse

approach to making instruments
chemical balance
dividing instruments
portable barometer

Rashleigh, Philip

recommended for F.R.S. by Henry Cavendish

Rennie, John

Revill, Thomas

Richardson, William

Richter, J.B.

Rittenhouse, David

diffraction grating
recommended for F.R.S. by Henry Cavendish

Robertson, John

Robertson, William

Robison, John

Aepinus’s electrical theory
Cavendish’s electrical theory

Ronayne, Thomas

Ross, John

club meeting on the Strand

Rouelle, Guillaume-Françcois

Routh, E.J.

Roy, William

Anglo-French triangulation
Greenwich-Paris Observatory triangulation
Royal Greenwich Observatory
accuracy and error
heights of mountains by the barometer
maps of London and England
shape of the Earth

Russell, Francis, fourth earl of Bedford

Russell, John, fourth duke of Bedford

Foundling Hospital

Russell, Lady Rachel (wife of Lord William Russell)

Russell, Lord William

Whig martyr

Russell, William, first duke of Bedford

Rutherford, Daniel

phlogisticated air

Rutherforth, Thomas

Cambridge

Ruvigny (Huguenot family related to the Cavendishes)

S

Sacks, Oliver

Henry Cavendish as autistic

Saunderson, Nicholas

Cambridge

Saussure, Bénédict de

eudiometry
hygrometry
radiant heat
recommended for F.R.S. by Henry Cavendish
touring

Scheele, Carl Wilhelm, (Fig. 14.9, 353)

chemical laboratory, (Fig. 14.10)
dephlogisticated air
discovery of acids
radiant heat

Schofield, Robert E.

view of Henry Cavendish

Schroeter, J.H.

recommended for F.R.S. by Henry Cavendish

Scott, George Lewis

Royal Society
Royal Society Club
pupil of De Moivre’s

Senebier, Jean

admiration for Henry Cavendish’s experimental technique

Shaw, Peter

Sheldon, John

Shepherd, Anthony

Cambridge
recommended for F.R.S. by Henry Cavendish

Short, James

cooperative observations
limits of accuracy

Shuckburgh, George

British instrument makers
accuracy and error
height of mountains by the barometer

Simpson, Thomas

Newton
limits of accuracy

Sloane, Hans

British Museum
Foundling Hospital
Royal Society
library

Smeaton, John

air pump, (Fig. 14.14, 374)
dividing circle
hygrometer

Smith, Adam

Smith, Robert

Cambridge
music
optics

Solander, Daniel

Spedding, Carlisle

Squire, Samuel

guest at Lord Charles Cavendish’s
recommended Henry Cavendish for F.R.S.

Stahl, Georg

chemical approach
phlogiston

Stanhope, Charles

Royal Society Club
pupil of De Moivre’s

Stanhope, Charles, Lord Mahon and third Earl Stanhope

aristocrat in science
dissensions at the Royal Society
electrical theory

Stanley, John Thomas

recommended for F.R.S. by Henry Cavendish

Steiner, Lewis H.

opinion of Henry Cavendish

Sterne, Laurence

Stirling, James

Strange, John

Cambridge
guest of Henry Cavendish’s at the Royal Society Club
recommended for F.R.S. by Henry Cavendish

Strutt, John William, Lord Rayleigh

admiration for Cavendish’s experiments on phlogisticated air
inert gases

Stuart, Alexander

Stukeley, William

Society of Antiquaries
earthquakes

Swift, Jonathan

T

Tait, Peter Guthrie

Taylor, Brook

heat experiments

Teighe, Michael

Temple, Henry, Viscount Palmerston

Thompson, Benjamin, Count Rumford

Institute of France
Royal Institution
heat, importance of

Thomson, Thomas

Cavendish analysis of mineral water
Cavendish and Blagden’s relations
Cavendish as an honorable man
Cavendish’s contribution to pneumatic chemistry
Cavendish’s criticism of Lavoisier
Cavendish’s view of phlogiston
physical description of Henry Cavendish
reception of Cavendish’s electrical theory
view of Henry Cavendish

Thomson, William, Lord Kelvin

Henry Cavendish’s electrical papers

Thornton, Henry

Thornton, Robert

Thornton, Samuel

Thorp, Robert

Thorpe, Sir Edward

Cavendish editor
view of Henry Cavendish
water controversy

Titsingh, Isaac

recommended for F.R.S. by Henry Cavendish

Trilling, Lionel

on biography

Troughton, Edward

dividing instruments

V

Venn, Henry

Venn, John

Vigani, John Francis

Cambridge

Volkmar, Fred

view of Henry Cavendish

Volta, Alessandro

W

Waddington, Robert

transit of Venus in 1761

Wales, William

meteorology
transit of Venus in 1769

Walker, John

view of Henry Cavendish

Walpole, George (son of Rachel Cavendish and Horatio Walpole)

Walpole, Horace, fourth earl of Orford

Walpole, Horatio, second Baron Walpole of Wolterton (eventually earl of Orford)

Walpole, Horatio (son of Rachel Cavendish and Horatio Walpole)

Walpole, Sir Robert (eventually earl of Orford)

Lord Charles Cavendish
political relations with the second duke of Devonshire

Walpole, Robert (son of Rachel Cavendish and Horatio Walpole)

Walsh, John

electric fish

Warltire, John

Watson, Richard

chemistry at Cambridge

Watson, William, (Fig. 4.7, 76)

British Museum
Foundling Hospital
Monday Club
Philosophical Transactions
Royal Society
Royal Society Club
Royal Society dissensions
Society of Arts
club meeting on the Strand
electrical conduction across the Thames
electrical research
extreme cold
friend and collaborator of Lord Charles Cavendish’s
guest at Lord Charles Cavendish’s
importance of electricity
lightning committee
natural history
opinion of Lord Charles Cavendish’s ability in science
plain language in science
recommended Henry Cavendish for F.R.S.
repeatability of experiments

Watt, James, (Fig. 14.11, 357)

Institute of France
latent heat
letters of introduction for Cavendish
recommended for F.R.S. by Henry Cavendish
smoke-burning furnace, (Figs. 16.6–16.7, 428–429)
specific gravity of steam experiment
steam engines
visited by Cavendish
water controversy
water, composition of

Wedgwood, Josiah

Weld, Richard

dissensions of the Royal Society
scientific biographies

Wells, William Charles

Wenzel, Carl Friedrich

West, James Thomas

president of the Royal Society

Whiston, William

Wilberforce, William

Wilbraham, Thomas

Royal Society
guest at Lord Charles Cavendish’s
recommended Henry Cavendish for F.R.S.

Wilcke, Johan Carl

heat experiments
recommended for F.R.S. by Henry Cavendish

Wilkins, Charles

Willoughby, Lord, of Parham

Royal Society
Royal Society Club
Society of Arts
proposed Henry Cavendish for F.R.S.

Wilmot, Edward

Wilson, Benjamin

Charles Cavendish’s electrical conduction experiment
lightning committee

Wilson, George

Cavendish and charity
Cavendish and religion
biography of Henry Cavendish
phlogiston as vulgar belief
scientific biographies
view of Henry Cavendish
water controversy

Wollaston, Francis

Cambridge
Henry Cavendish’s guest at the Royal Society Club
errors
recommended by Henry Cavendish for F.R.S.

Wollaston, Francis John Hyde

Wollaston, George

Wollaston, William Hyde

Cambridge

Woolf, Virginia

on biography

Woulfe, Peter

Wray, Daniel

British Museum
Rawthmell’s Coffee-House
Royal Society
Royal Society Club
Society of Antiquaries
recommended Henry Cavendish for F.R.S.
recommended Henry Cavendish to the Society of Antiquaries

Wreden, John

Wren, Christopher

Wright, Thomas

astronomy at Wrest Park
tutor of the Greys

Y

Yale, Anne

Yale, Elihu

Yorke, Jemima (Campbell), marchioness de Gray (granddaughter of the duke of Kent)

pupil of Thomas Wright’s

Yorke, Philip, first earl of Hardwicke

William Jones

Yorke, Philip, Viscount Royston, second earl of Hardwicke

British Museum
Hackney Academy
Thomas Birch
Wrest Park

Young, Thomas, (Fig. 17.6, 473)

Royal Institution
accuracy of Cavendish’s weighing of the world
nature of heat
physical description of Henry Cavendish
theory of light
view of Henry Cavendish

Z

Zach, Franz Xaver von

recommended for F.R.S. by Henry Cavendish