Studies 10

Multilingualism, Lingua Franca and Lingua Sacra

Studies in multilingualism, lingua franca and lingua sacra

Studies in multilingualism, lingua franca and lingua sacra

This publication is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Germany (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE) Licence.

The present book comprises a number of studies centered around the topic of how knowledge diffuses from one culture to another, and how knowledge diffusion is connected with the spread of languages and the conceptual systems they carry by translation. This diffusion also takes place also over linguistic borders, in the way that a given receiving language may also absorb systems of knowledge from languages that are linguistically quite unrelated but culturally connected with respect to knowledge transfer. Thus we find that Sumerian concepts with considerable impact were moved into the Akkadian language, along with writing-systems, religion, science and literature, even though linguistically the languages are completely unrelated. Another example is how Chinese culture and writing systems spread throughout East Asia into Korea, Japan and Vietnam, though the languages of these countries were linguistically unrelated to Chinese. The same case can be made for Buddhist ways of thinking when it was clothed in the garb of Chinese or Tibetan, or one of the other languages along the Silk Road. This is also true for the spread of Manicheism, as it was portrayed in a great number of languages, related or unrelated. German and Latin are linguistically related, but when Latin learning was communicated in Old High German, many of its terms were created in Middle German to accommodate the Latin conceptual world, and the German language was lastingly enriched with novisms denoting concepts of the Classical traditions of learning, in a process parallel to the spread of Greek Christianity into the East European cultures and languages. The book describes some cases of such knowledge transfer and what kind of mechanisms are involved in the ensuing language changes in the receiving languages and cultures.

List of Contributors

Preface
Markham J. Geller, Jens Braarvig

Introduction
Markham J. Geller, Jens Braarvig

Part I: General Reflections

1 Empires and their Languages: Reflections on the History and the Linguistics of Lingua Franca and Lingua Sacra
Reinier Salverda

2 Dependent Languages
Jens Braarvig

Part II: Europe

3 Lehnübersetzung und Lehnbedeutung vs. Lehnwort: Zu den Entlehnungen aus dem Lateinischen und Französischen in das mittelalterliche Deutsch
Kurt Gärtner

4 Konrad of Megenberg: German Terminologies and Expressions as Created on Latin Models
Kathrin Chlench-Priber

5 What Language Does God Speak?
Florentina Badalanova Geller

6 Islamic Mystical Poetry and Alevi Rhapsodes From the Village of Sevar, Bulgaria
Florentina Badalanova Geller

7 Learning Arabic and Learned Bilingualism in Early Modern England: The Case of John Pell
Daniel Andersson

Part III: Ancient Near East

8 Sumerian in the Middle Assyrian Period
Klaus Wagensonner

9 The Concept of the Semitic Root in Akkadian Lexicography
Markham J. Geller

10 Multilingualism in the Elamite Kingdoms and the Achaemenid Empire
Jan Tavernier

11 Diplomatic Multilingualism in the Middle East, Past and Present: Multilingualism, Linguae Francae and the Global History of Religious and Scientific Concepts
Lutz Edzard

12 Some Observations on Multilingualism in Graeco-Roman Egypt
Alexandra von Lieven

Part IV: India and Central Asia

13 Indo-Iranian Sacred Texts and Sacrificial Practices: Structures of Common Heritage (Speech and Performance in the Veda and Avesta, III)
Velizar Sadovski

14 Aspects of Multilingualism in Turfan as Seen in Manichaean Texts
Desmond Durkin-Meisterernst

Part V: China

15 Multilingualism and Lingua Franca in the Ancient Chinese World
William G. Boltz

16 The Imprint of Buddhist Sanskrit on Chinese and Tibetan: Some Lexical Ontologies and Translation Strategies in the Tang Dynasty
Jens Braarvig

17 Classical Chinese as Lingua Franca in East Asia in the First to Second Millennia CE: Focusing on the Linguistic Situation in Traditional Korea
Vladimir Tikhonov

Part VI: The Americas

18 Multilingualism and Lingua Francae of Indigenous Civilizations of America
Lars Kirkhusmo Pharo

Show All

2

260-day calendar

A

Abdelmeguid, Ahmed Esmat

Abraham (Avram)

Abrahamic faith

Abraham’s sacrifice

abugida-type orthography

Achaemenid Empire

Acropole Texts

Adam and Eve

administration

Aelian

Aetiological legend

African languages

Āfrīnagān

Āgamas

Agni

Aguilar, Gerónimo de

Ahura Mazdā

Akkad

Akkadian

Al-Bīrūnī

Al-Rabghūzī, Nosiruddin Burhonuddin

Al-Ṭabarī, Jarīr

Al-Tha̔labī, Ibrāhīm

Alemannen

Alevi (Aliani)

Alexander the Great (Iskandar)

Alexander’s linguistic heritage

Algiers

Algonquin

alphabet

  • Korean
    1 2 3

    phonetic
    1

    syllabic
    1 2 3

Altaic languages

Amarna

Amenemhet III

American Bible Society

Amharic

Ammon

Amuzgo

Ān Shìgāo (安世高)

ana ittišu

ana pî ṭuppi šaṭāri

Anatolia

Anchoes

Anglosaxon

anomaly/analogy controversy

anthropogony

Antipas, Saint

Apache

Apocalypse of Enoch, The

apocryphal literature

Āprī

Aqedah

Aquin, Thomas von

Arabic

Aramaic

Arawakan

archaeological context

archaic tablet

archive

arhan

Aristotle

Armenian

Arsacid dynasty

Arsames correspondence

Artaxerxes I

artisan

Ashurbanipal

Assyria

Astrolabe B

astronomical terminology

astronomical text

Asuka

Atharvavedic hymn

augmented triad

Augustine, Saint

Avataṃsaka

avatars

Averroes

Avesta

  • 1 2 3 4 5

    creation list
    1

    purification list
    1

    sacrifice
    1

Aymaran

Ayuujk

Aztec

B

Babylonia

Bac/alshamên

Bactria

Bailang

barbarian

barriers between languages

Basse, William

Bēl-aha-iddina

Bettelorden

bhagavān

Bible

Biblical matriarch

bilingualism

birth of new languages

Bišbaliq

Bodhisattva

Bogomilism

Book of Jubilees, The

Book of Nature, The (Megenberg)

Boutros-Ghali, Boutros

Brahman

Brāhmī

Braudel, Fernand

Buchreligion

Buddha

Buddhism

  • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

    Great and Small Vehicles
    1

    Hybrid Chinese
    1

    Samgha
    1

    Sanskrit
    1

    Sinified
    1

    missionary
    1

    sutras
    1

building inscriptions

Burma

Byzantine

C

Cain and Abel

calendar

calque

Cambodia

canonical languages

Carib

Cartographic manuscript

case ending

case study

Castilian

Castillo, Bernal Díaz del

Catalan

catalog poetry

catalogs and lists

Cathars

Celtic

Celts

center-periphery

Central Asia

Changan

Charlemagne

Chaucer, Geoffrey

Cherokee syllabic writing

Chiapas

Chimalpahin

China

Chinantec

Chinese

Chinese empire

Chinook

Chippewa

Chocholtec

Ch’oltian

Chŏngdosa och’ŭngsŏkt’ap chosŏng hyŏngjigi

chos skad

Chosŏn

Christianity

Chrétien de Troyes

chubu

church

Chữ Nôm

Cicero, Marcus Tullius

Classic Maya

Classical Arabic

classification

code switching

Codex Hermopolis

Codex Santa María Asunción

Codex Sierra Texupan

Codex Vindobonensis 3055

cognate

Coixtlahuaca

colophon

Columbus, Christopher

Comanche

commentary

concatenation

Confucianism

  • 1 2

    classics
    1

    ideals
    1

    norms
    1

    teachings
    1

contact language

Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW)

Coptic

Cortés, Hernán

Cosmas and Damian

Cosmas the Presbyter

cosmology

creation myth

Creek

Creole

creolization

cross-cultural contact

Crusades

cryptography

cultural

  • history
    1 2 3 4

    interaction
    1

    language
    1 2 3

cuneiform

Cyrillic alphabet

D

dānapati

Dante

Darius

Darius III

Dead Sea scrolls

decipherment

dem (alcoholic beverage)

Demotic

Dervish

deutsche Sphaera, Die (Sacrobosco)

Dharma-language

Dharmarakṣa

dialect

Diferentes Historias Originales (Chimalpahin)

diffusion of knowledge

diglossia

digraphic inscriptions

Dioskurides

diphrasism (difrasismos)

diplomacy

diplomatic multilingualism

Discussion Between the Three Saints, The

diversity

Divina Comedia (Dante)

Dominicans

Dong guan (Han) ji (東觀(漢)記)

dragoman

Du Fu

dub-sar

Dunhuang

Dutch

Dutch colonial empire

E

e2-dub-ba-a

Egyptian

Egyptian-Hittite treaty

eightfold declension

El primer nueva corónica y buen gobierno (Guaman Poma de Ayala)

Elamite

Eliade, Mircea

Eliot, John

Emar

Emesal

empire

encyclopedia

English

Enheduanna

Entlehnung

Epi-Olmec

Epic of Tukultī-Ninurta I

epigraphic evidence

Epiphanius

Erbwort

Erfurt

ergative structure

Erpenius, Thomas

Esarhaddon

ethnobotanical thesaurus

ethnohermeneutics

ethnohistory

ethnomedicine

ethnonym

Etruscan

etymography

Etymologiae (Isidor of Sevilla)

etymology

Eucharist

Euclid

European empires

Evangelienbuch (Otfried von Weißenburg)

evangelization

F

Fabricius da Aquadepente

Fǎchéng (法成)

Fachausdruck

Fachwortschatz

false prayer

Fan Ye (范曄)

Fānfànyǔ (翻梵語)

Fànyǔ qiānzìwén (梵語千字文)

Farangi

Fayum

Fǎzàng (法藏)

Ferdinandus, Philippus

Finnish

fire

Fire list

Flavius Josephus

flood (biblical)

Fo-tu Deng (佛圖澄)

Folk Bible

folklore

foreign talk

formal speech

Fortification Archive

Franciscans

Franks

French

Frisian

G

Galen

Gallic

games

Gāndhārī

Gansu

Gaoseng zhuan (高僧傳)

gati

Geber- und Nehmersprache

gematria

gender-neutral terms

genealogical list

Genesis

Georgy, Saint

German

Germanic language

Giants

Gilgamesh

Glied-für-Glied-Übersetzung

globalization

glossaries

glosse

Glossenkeil

Glossenüberlieferung

glossolalia

glottography

god list

’Gos Chos-grub

Gothic

Gottfried von Straßburg

government

graffiti

Gralsthema

Gramática de la lengua castellana (Nebrija)

grammar

grapevine (biblical)

Greek

Gregory the Great, Saint

Griechisch

Guaman Poma de Ayala, Felipe

Guarani

Gulliver’s Travels (Swift)

H

Hammurabi

Han court

Han dynasty

Han empire

hangŭl

Hanshu (漢書)

Haoma

Haqq

Hartlib, Samuel

Hartmann von Aue

Hattuša

Ḫattušili III

healing spell

heavenly principles

Hebrew

hegemony

Hellene

Hellenization

hemerology

hermeneutics

Herodotus

Hesiod

Hieratic

hieroglyph

highbrow writing

Hindu-Buddhism

hippology

hiragana syllabic script

Historia Verdadera de la Conquista de la Nueva España (Castillo)

history of ideas

Hittite

Hodja

Holder of the Brush

Homer

homonym

Hopi

Hou Han shu (後漢書)

Hupa

Huron

Hurrian

Hva-shang Moheyan

Hwaŏm sagyŏng chosŏnggi

hyangga

hymn

Hymns to Šulgi

hypertext

I

Iblīs

Ibn Khaldun

icon

Idaddu

idiom

idu (the petty-clerks’ writing)

Imperial Colegio de Santa Cruz de Tlatelolco

Inanna

incantation

India

Indian Sign Language

Indianization

Indic script

Indigenous languages

Indo-European traditions

Indo-Iranian

Indonesia

Indus valley

Inka

inscription

interaction

interdisciplinary

interlingual pun

interpretatio graeca

interpretation

Iqīša-Ninkarrak

Iranian

Iranian dialects

Isaac

Isabella, Queen

Isidor of Sevilla

Isidoros

Isis-Renenutet

Islam

Islamization

Italian

Iuppiter Optimus Maximus

J

Jacobo de Testera

Jakobson, Roman

Jamaica

Japan

Japanese

Japanese Archipelago

jargon

Jaxartes

Jean de Main

Jerome, Saint

Jesus

Jiandeng Xinhua

Jie (羯)

Judean Antiquities (Josephus)

Jurchen

K

Kallimachos

Kalmakarra Cave

Kamalaśīla

Kang-ju (康居)

Kanjur

Karabalgasun

Karakhiuseinov, Khasan

Kāśyapa-Mātaṅga

Kelter

Ket

key word

Kharosthī

khipu

  • 1 2

    Andean
    1

    Canuto
    1

    Inka
    1

    Wari
    1

Khitans

Khotanese

K’iche’

Kidin-Sîn

King David

King Solomon

Kiowa-Tanoan language

Kitovras

knowledge

Koguryŏ

koinè

Konrad of Megenberg

Kontaktlinguistik (Goebl)

Korea

Korean

Koryŏ

Kriol

Kulturtechnik

Kumārajīva

Kurban

Kuyunjik

L

La Malinche

Laestadianism

Lamb of God

language

language family

  • Indo-European
    1 2 3 4 5 6

    Popoloca
    1

    Sino-Tibetan
    1

    Siouan
    1 2

Laṅkāvatāra

Latin

Latin America

Laws of Manu

Le Jeune, Paul

learning

legal texts

Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm

Lelang

Levi, David

lexical texts

lexicography

lexicon

Lhasa Council

Li Hsien (李賢)

Liang shu (梁書)

library

Libya

Life of Adam and Eve, The

Linear Elamite

lingua

  • administrativa
    1 2 3 4

    commercialis
    1

    legalis
    1

    mathematica
    1

    nobilis
    1 2 3

    nobilitatis
    1 2 3

    poetica
    1 2

    romana rustica
    1 2

lingua franca

lingua sacra

linguistic borrowing

List of the Eleven

litany

literacy

literatura franca

liturgy

loan

loanword

logogram

logosyllabic writing

Lokakṣema

longue durée

love spell

loyalty and filial piety

Lugal-e

Luoyang (洛陽)

Luristan

Lybia

M

magic

Mahā-vyutpatti

Mahāmeghasūtra

Mahāparinirvāṇasūtra

Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra

Mahāsannipāta

Mahdī

Malay

mana

Manchu

Manichaeism

  • 1 2 3 4

    Mani’s Gospel
    1

    Mani’s seven books
    1

    as state religion
    1

mantra

  • 1 2 3 4 5 6

    Vedic
    1

    Vedic sacrificial
    1

    dharanimantras
    1

Mantra-Tantra

manuscript collections

manyogana

Mapa de Cuauhtincan

Mapuche

Marduk-balāssu-ēreš

Marduk-nādin-ahhē

Mari

Master Shi (史君)

Maya

  • 1 2 3 4

    civilization
    1

    logosyllabic writing
    1

    script
    1

    writing system
    1 2

medical reference books

Mediterranean

Memorial de los Indios de Tepetlaztoc

memory

  • collective
    1 2

    error
    1 2

    verbal
    1

Mencius (Mengzi; 孟子)

menology

merchant

Mesopotamia

Mesopotamian scribes

metaphor

Middle Ages

Middle Assyrian

Middle Dutch

Midrash

military reference books

Ming

mission civilisatrice

missionary linguist

Mithras

Mixe

Mixe-Zoque

Mixtec

modus

  • essendi
    1

    significandi
    1

Mongolian

Mongols

monoglot

monolingualism

morphology

Moschion

mother tongue

mūdû mūdâ lukallim

Mughal

muhabbet

Muhammad Ali

Muisca

Mūlasarvastivādavinaya

multiculturalism

multilingualism

Muslim

mysticism

Müller, Friedrich Max

Mār Šād-Ohrmezd

N

Nabnitu

Nāgārjuna

Nahua

Nahuatl

Nara

Naram-Sîn

Native American Indian

native naming

native speaker

Navajo

Nebrija, Antonio de

Neo-Confucian

Neogrammarian Hypothesis

neologism

nepesh

Ngiwa

Nihon shoki (日本書紀)

Nin-Isina’s Journey to Nippur

Nineveh

Ninurta’s Exploits

Ninurta’s Return to Nippur

Nippur

Noah

nomina propria

Norman Conquest

Norman-French elite

North-Africa

Nubians

numbering system

O

Oaxaca

Occaneechi

Occitan

Ockham, William

Ocuiltec

Old Avestan

Old Babylonian

Old Babylonian Grammatical Texts

Old Church Slavonic

Old Indic liturgies

Old Norse

onomasticon

orality

ordering principle

Oriental gods

Oriental studies

Orthodox Russian peasants

orthography

Oxus

P

Paekche

paired dyad

Palander, Hugo

Palmyra

Pāṇinean categories

Pāṇinean theories

paper

para-Quranic tradition

parabiblical oral corpus

paradigm

Paraguayan Guaraní

parchment

Parthian

Parzival

pasigraphy

Pasor, Matthias

Patois

Pawnee

Peace of Westphalia

periphery

Persepolis Bronze Tablet

Persia

Persian

Persian garb

Phags-pa Lama

Phags-pa script

Pharaoh

Phoenician

phonetic

phonology

phytonym

pictogram

pictorial-logographic

pidgin

pidginization

pinyin

Pīr Sultan

Pirahã

Pirqe de Rabbi Eliezer

Plutarch

poet

Pollock, Sheldon

polyglot

Pope Gregory XVI

Popoloca

Porramanres

Portuguese

Prague Linguistics Circle

Prajāpati

Prajñāpāramitā

preceptor

prefix

priamel

printing

Procopius of Caesarea

Prophet Elijah

protolanguage

Provençal

Psalter

Pseudo-Jubilees

psychology

Ptolemy

Pueblo languages

Puruṣa-Sūkta

Puzur-Inšušinak

Pyongyang

Q

Qiānzìwén (千字文)

Qing

Qu You

Qubilai Qagan

Quechua

Qumran

Quran

R

Ramses II

Raphelengius, Franciscus

Ratnamegha

Ratnameghasūtra

Ratu

rebus

reference works

Renaissance

repetition

Rhind papyri

Rhyme of the Book of the Dove, The

ritual

Roman Empire

Romanization

Romans

roots

royal

  • inscription
    1

    scribe
    1 2

rune

Russian

S

Sabir

Šābuhragān

sacred scripture

Sacrificial Straw

Sacrobosco, John of

Saddharmapuṇḍarīka

Sahagun

Samarkand

Samye debate

Sanskrit

Sanskrit-Tang Thousand Characters, The

Śāntarakṣita

Sasanian Empire

Saussure, Ferdinand de

Scaliger, Julius Justus

scholarly texts

scholasticism

school texts

Schuchardt, Hugo

science

scribal

scribe

script

scriptorium

scriptura

seals

secret lore

secular

Security Council Resolution

semantic transformation

semantics

semiosis

Semitic

Senalegs

Seneca

sensum de sensu

sentence structure

sermon

Sevar

sGra sbyor

Shah Aurangzeb

Shah Jahan

Shengzu

Shi Le (石勒)

Shoshone

shrike-tongued people

Si yi guan (四譯館)

Siberia

Sichuan

siddham

sijo poetry

Silk Road

Silla

Sima Qian

Sîn-iddinam

Sîn-šuma-iddina

singer

Sinicization

Sioux

šir3-nam-šub

Siruktuh

Sisinius, Saint

slang

Slavonic vernacular

socio-historical linguistics

sociolinguistics

Sogdian

Sogdian garb

Sogdiana

Sokonopis

Soma ritual

Songtsen Gampo

South East Asia

Spain

Spanish

speech act theory

Sphera mundi (Sacrobosco)

Śrāvaka

standardization

Strabo

structural leveling

structural-functional approach

Sumerian

Sumero-Akkadian bilingual texts

Summa theologica

sunkir šerašta

Suolahti

supralanguage

Susa

sūtra

Sūtra in Forty Two Sections, The

Šutruk-Nahhunte II

Swahili

Sweden

syllabary

synonym list

syntax

Syriac

T

Tahori

Tajik

Tale about the šumunda-Grass

*tallir

Talmud

  • 1

    Babylonian
    1

Tamazulapan-Teotongo

Tamil

Tang dynasty

Tangut (西夏)

Taoism

Targum Neofiti

Targum Pseudo-Jonathan

tathāgata

Tatian

taxonomy

teaching

technical literature

technology

tecpillahtolli, the Aztec aristocratic language

temple of Isis

Tenepal

Tenjur

Tenochtitlan

Teotihuacan

Testament

Tetzcoco

Tewa

texts

  • astronomical
    1 2

    documentary
    1 2 3 4

Thai

Thailand

Thomas of Cantimpré

Thomas of Erfurt

Thonmi Sambhoṭa

Thousand Characters from the Sanskrit Language, A (梵語千字文)

Thride Songtsen

Thrisong Detsen

Tibetan

Tibeto-Burman language

Tiglath-pileser I

Tlatelolco

Tocharian

Tocuij Ñudzavui region

Tok Pisin

Tornedalian

Totonac

Tower of Babel

trader

tradition

translation

transliteration

transmission

Treasury texts

treaty

tri-radical root

trilingual translator

Trogus

Tukano

Tukulti-Ninurta Epic

tumme

Tungusic

Tupí

ṭupšarru

Turfan

Turkic

Turkish

typology

Tzeltal

Tzotzil

U

Ugarit

Uighur

United Nations

Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR)

Untaš-Napiriša

Ur-III Empire

Urnammu

Uruk

Uto-Aztec stock

V

Van den Driesch, Johannes

Vasubandhu

Veda

  • 1 2 3 4 5

    creation list
    1

    purification list
    1

verbal amulet

verbo ad verbum

verbum e verbo

Vidēvdād

Vietnam

Vietnamese

Virgin Mary

Virgin Theotokos

Vīsprad

Vīštāsp Yašt

vocabulary

voice

vulgarization

vyākaraṇa

W

waka

wampum

Wappo

Warring States period

Wei Man

Weinreich, Uriel

Wencheng

West-Semitic

Wissensgeschichte

Wolfram von Eschenbach

wooden tablet

word

word-play

worship

writing culture

writing system

written language

Wu Di (漢武帝; Han dynasty emperor)

Wǔ Zétiān (武則天)

X

Xerxes

Xinjiang

Xiongnu (匈奴)

Xuánzàng (玄奘)

Y

Yasna

Yeniseian

Yìjìng (義淨)

Yu zhi Qing wen jian (御製清文鑑)

Yu zhi Wu ti Qing wen jian (御製五體清文鑑)

Yuan

Yucatán

Yucatec

Yuezhi (大月氏)

Yunus

Z

Zapotec

Zarathustra

Zem-zem

Zeus

Zeus Hypsistos

Zhang Qian (張騫)

Zhìguǎng (智廣)

Zhōu Xìngsì (周興嗣)

Information

ISBN

978-3-945561-13-3

Pages

535

Publication Date

May 18, 2018

Print on Demand

currently unavailable

Submitted by

Glenn Most and Hindi Najman